Neandertal postcrania

Neandertals were very robustly built. This means that they had relatively thick bones, with thick layers of cortical bone. It also means they had relatively extensive and rugose muscle attachments.

In comparison with most living humans, Neandertal long bones were distinctive in being strongly curved along their shafts. In addition to this curvature, they had very large joint surfaces.

What to do: Compare the Neandertal femur at this station to the sample of modern humans. What makes it different? Explain the mechanical reasons for these features.